It was a hot day. The sun was shining brightly in the blue sky. A wolf and a lamb met at a stream. The water in the stream was cool and clear. The wolf saw that lamb was fat and wanted to eat it. He began to shout: "You, fool, you are making the water dirty!" The lamb was afraid. It looked at the wolf and said in a thin voice: "But,'Mr. Wolf, I canifot make the water dirty for you from the place where I am standing, because the stream runs from you to me." "Stop talking!" shouted the wolf in an angry voice. "I know you! I met you six months ago, and you were very rude to me." "You are wrong, Mr. Wolf," cried the lamb, "you could not meet me six months ago: I am only four months old." "Never mind," said the wolf, "if it wasn't you, it was your brother." And with these words he seized the poor lamb and carried it into the wood.
1. Bill Robins was a very rich man. He was the richest man in the village. 2. Pete is the tallest boy in our class. Nick is the shortest boy, but he is very strong. He is stronger than many boys who are taller than he. I think Nick is the strongest boy in the class. 3. Granny often tells us long stories. Today her story was still longer. It was the longest story. She began telling it after dinner and finished only before supper. But the story was very interesting. I think it was the most interesting of Granny's stories. 4. Which was the most difficult exercise in the paper? 5. Which is the best season of the year? 6. February is the shortest month of the year. 7. Do you know the longest river in our country? 8. In May the days are longer than in April.
1. Moscow is situated on the Moscow River. The Moscow is a river that moves very slowly. There is a canal called the Moscow-Volga Canal which joins the /5 Moscow to the Volga. The Volga runs into the Caspian Sea. 2. Several rivers run into the sea at New York. The most important is the Hudson River which empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Besides the Hudson there are two other rivers: the East River and the Harlem River. 3. In Siberia there are many long rivers: the Ob, the Irtysh, the Yenissei, the Lena and the Amur. 4. The Altai Mountains are higher than the Urals. 5. There is a splendid view of Lake Geneva from this hotel. 6. My friends have travelled a lot. This year they are going to fly to the Canary Islands. 7. Which river flows through London? — The Thames. 8, Of which country is Washington the capital? — The United States. 9. The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 10. Chicago is on Lake Michigan.
1. Russia occupies the eastern half of Europe and the northern third of Asia. 2. The climate of the north-ern part of Russia is severe. 3. This winter is a true Russian winter with hard frosts. 4. It is warm in the Crimea and the Caucasus. 5. Washington is the capital of the United States of America. 6. I want to go to New York some day. 7. The best way to know and understand the people of other countries is to meet them in their own homes. 8. Is Australia an island or a continent? 9. The Red Sea is between Africa and Asia. 10. There are six continents in the world. 11. France is to the north of Italy.
1. The Neva flows into the Gulf of Finland. 2. The Pacific Ocean is very deep. 3. The Urals are not very high. 4. Kazbek is the highest peak of the Caucasus» 5. The Alps are covered with snow. 6. The Shetland Islands are situated to the north of Great Britain» 7. The USA is the largest country in America. 8. The Crimea is washed by the Black Sea. 9. Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world. 10. Paris is the capital of France. 11. Lomonosov was born in a small village on the shore of the White Sea. 12. Gogol was born in the Ukraine in 1809. 13. The Caucasus separates the Black Sea from the Caspian Sea. 14. Europe and America are separated by the Atlantic Ocean. 15. The Baltic Sea is stormy in winter. 16. There are many small islands in the Pacific Ocean. 17. The North Sea separates the British Isles from Europe. 18. The Balkans are old mountains. 19. The Nile flows across the northeastern part of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. 20. Which are the highest mountains in Russia?
1. The Thames is a short river. 2. Russia is washed by the Arctic Ocean in the north. 3. Kiev is to the south of Moscow. 4. Europe is a continent. 5. Moscow is the capital of Russia. 6. Is Asia an island or a continent? 7. The Black Sea is in the south of our country. 8. The White Sea is in the north of our country. 9. This is a map of the world. What can you see on the map? What colour are the valleys on the map? 10. Petrov is an architect. He is an experienced architect. He is in the Far East. He has a wife. His wife is a typist. They have a son and a daughter. 11. The Philippines are situated to the southeast of Asia.
1. This is a pen. It is a good pen. The pen is black. It is on the table. 2. I have got a dog. The dog's name is Spot. He is a big grey dog. The dog is very strong. 3. My friend has a sister. Her name is Ann. The girl is a pupil. 4. We have a picture in the living room. The picture is very good. It is on the wall. 5. The Irish Sea is between Great Britain and Ireland. 6. There is a map on the wall of the classroom. It is a map of the world. There are many seas and lakes on the map. This is the Mediterranean Sea and that is the Red Sea. These are the Himalayas. They are the highest mountains in the world. 7. We live in St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg is a very large city. It is one of the largest cities in Russia. 8. My brother is a doctor. His flat is in the centre of the city. It is in a new house. There are three rooms in the flat. The living room is the largest of all. It is a nice light room. There are some pictures on the walls. There is a round table in the middle of the room. There is a sofa at the wall with a large thick carpet in front of it. The study and the bedroom are small, but very comfortable.
1. Did you have a good time in the country? — Oh, yes. The weather was fine. We were out of doors from morning till night. We played football, volleyball and other games. We came home late at night and went to bed at once. 2. Look at the clock! It is a quarter past ten. Go to bed at once. 3. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 4. We spent last summer in the Ukraine, in a little village on the bank of a big river with very warm water. There was a wood on the other side of the river. We often went to the wood and gathered a lot of mushrooms. 5. My friend likes to play chess. He is ready to play chess all day long. He is the best chess player in our school.
1. Teckle comes from a very old country on the Nile. It is called Ethiopia. Ethiopia is a beautiful mountainous country. Teckle is a young man. He wants to be come an engineer. He is very happy to be a student of St. Petersburg University. He spends a lot of time at the library reading and studying different subjects, Very often in the evening his new friends and he walk about the city talking about their native countries. 2. Galina lives in the Ukraine. She lives in a small village near Odessa. She is a librarian. In summer she has a lot of work: she takes newspapers and magazines to the people who work in the fields. Galina wants to enter Moscow University and now she is preparing for the entrance examinations. 3. My friend lives in America. He is a student. He studies history at Harvard University.
When we want to write a letter, we take a piece of paper and a pen. We first write our address and the date in the right-hand corner. Then on the left-hand side we write a greeting. We may write, for instance, "My dear brother," "Dear Henry,'* etc., and then on the next line we begin the real letter. We must not forget to leave a margin on the left-hand side of the page. At the end of the letter we write "Yours," and then we sign our name. We put the letter into an envelope and close the envelope. On the envelope we write the name and address of the person who will receive it. We stick a stamp in the top right-hand corner, and then we post the letter.
Once there lived a man who was very fond of gold. He used to say: "While I have my gold, I am the happiest man in the world." And so all his life he saved money. One day he was travelling in the desert of North Africa. He lost his way. He had no food or water. He was almost dying of hunger. He was so weak that he could not walk, he could only crawl. The heat was terrible. There were only stones and sand around. Just then he saw a bag lying on the sand. He hoped that he would find food in it and water, too. He crawled up to the bag and opened it. He saw that the bag was full of gold. What is the use of gold to a hungry man in a desert? He left the bag on the hot sand, crying bitterly: "I am the most unhappy man in the world."
1. Let's go to the shop, I must buy some bread and milk. 2. I was at the cinema yesterday. — What film did you see? — Oh, I saw a very good film. I think it is the best film of the year. 3. Do you often go to the theatre? — No, I don't. I like to go to the theatre, but I am very busy. I work from morning till night. I even have no time to play the piano. 4. Oleg has a lot of interesting books at home. 5. A lot of tourists from different countries come to St. Petersburg. They want to see one of the most beautiful cities in the world. 6. My new friend said to me: "I am a student of the first course." 7. We went to the cinema in the evening. 8. What foreign languages does your father speak? — He speaks English. He studied English at school. 9. I am interested in history. 10. We played tennis at the lesson of physical training yesterday. We had a good time. 11. Did you go for a walk yesterday? — No, we didn't. The weather was bad, and we went to the cinema. 12. What are your friends doing? — Mary is playing the piano. Tom and Nick are playing chess.
Three men came to New York for a holiday. They came to a very large hotel and took a room there. Their room was on the forty-fifth floor. In the evening the friends went to the theatre and came back to the hotel very late. "I am very sorry," said the clerk of the hotel, "but the lifts do not work tonight. If you don't want to walk up to your room, we shall make beds for you in the hall." "No, no," said one of the friends, "no, thank you. We don't want to sleep in the hall. We shall walk up to our room." Then he turned to his friends and said: "It is not easy to walk up to the forty-fifth floor, but we shall make it easier. On the way to the room I shall tell you some jokes; then you, Andy, will sing us some songs; then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories." So they began walking up to their room. Tom told them many jokes; Andy sang some songs. At last they came to the thirty-sixth floor. They were tired and decided to have a rest. "Well," said Tom, "now it is your turn, Peter. After all the jokes, I would like to hear a sad story. Tell us a long and interesting story with a sad end." "The story which I am going to tell you," said Peter, "is sad enough. We left the key to our room in the hall."
Swift, a famous English writer, was travelling one day on horseback with his servant. The weather was bad, it was raining, and the roads were muddy. In the evening the two men came to an inn. Before going to bed Swift told his servant to clean his boots. But the servant was lazy and did not do it. In the morning Swift asked the servant why he had not cleaned the boots. "What's the use cleaning the boots now?" said the servant. "The roads are muddy, and the boots will soon be dirty again." "All right," said the writer. "Let's go. We must continue the journey." "But I haven't had breakfast," said the displeased servant. "Well, what's the use giving you breakfast now?" said Swift: "You will soon be hungry again."
In a small town in the East there was once a man who had a parrot. The parrot was taught to say the words: "There is no doubt about it." It used to repeat these words all day long. Every time it was asked a question, it gave the same answer. "There is no doubt about it." One day the man decided to sell the bird; so he put the parrot into the cage and went to the market with it. "Twenty pounds for a very clever parrot!" he cried. A man who was passing by heard this and turned to the parrot. "Are you worth twenty pounds?" he asked. "There is no doubt about it!" answered the parrot. "What a clever parrot!" said the man and bought the bird. He took the parrot home and invited his friends to look at the clever bird. The friends came and looked at the parrot and talked to it. Now you must know that the man was not rich. In fact, he was often short of money. So a week or two later, sitting in an armchair and looking at the parrot, he said: "What a fool I was to throw away such a lot of money!" "There is no doubt about it!" cried the parrot» And this time the bird was right.
A train stopped at a little station. A passenger looked out of the window of a train carriage and saw a woman selling cakes. The man had not had breakfast in the morning. He was hungry and wanted to buy a cake. The woman was standing rather far from the carriage. The man did not want to go and buy a cake himself because he was afraid to miss the train. He saw a boy who was walking along the platform near the carriage. He called the boy and asked him: "How much does a cake cost?" "Threepence, sir," answered the boy. The man gave him a sixpence and said: "Bring me a cake, and with the other threepence buy a cake for yourself." The boy took the money and went to the woman. A few minutes later the boy returned. He was eating a cake. He gave the man threepence change and said: "The woman had only one cake, sir."
A crow once said to her children: "It's high time for you to look for food." With these words she turned them out of the nest and took them to the field. But the crow's children did not like the idea. "We'd rather go back to the nest," they cried. "It's so nice when you bring food to us!" "Indeed!" said their mother. "You are big enough to feed yourselves. My mother turned me out of the nest when I was much younger, and I had to take care of myself." "But people will kill us with their guns," said the young crows. "No fear of that," answered their mother. "Before people shoot, they take aim, and that takes time. When you see a man raising a gun to his face, you must just fly away." "That's a simple thing to do," said the children, "but supposing a man or a boy wants to throw a stone at us: in such a case he won't have to take aim." "Well, then he will have to bend down to pick up a stone," said the crow. "But what if he carries a stone in his hand ready?" "Why, if you are clever enough to think of that," said the mother, "you are clever enough to take care of yourselves." And she flew away leaving the young crows in the field.
Russia is such a large country that when it is night in one part of the country, it is day in another part, when it is winter in one part of the country, it is already summer in another. Imagine it is the beginning of May now. It is spring in St. Petersburg. The weather is fine. It is still cool at night, but it is quite warm in the afternoon. It sometimes rains, but the rain is warm, too. The ground is covered with soft green grass, and the trees are covered with green leaves. But while it is spring in St. Petersburg, it is still winter in the north of our country at the beginning of May. Here it is cold and sometimes frosty, the rivers and seas are covered with ice. The ice does not melt in some places even in summer. The ground is covered with deep snow. In the south of our country the weather is quite different. It is already summer in the Caucasus and in the Crimea. It is much warmer than in St. Petersburg. It is sometimes even hot. The sky is usually cloudless and it seldom rains here, People wear summer clothes.
1. Is this an interesting book? Is this a very interesting book? Is this the very interesting book you have spoken about so much? It is such an interesting book. Is it the same book you have recommended to us? 2. She is a teacher. She is a good teacher. She is a teacher of our school. She is a teacher of English. Here is the teacher, ask her about the question which interests you. 3. There is a word in the text which I cannot understand. There is a very difficult word, too, which I cannot pronounce. Here is the word I was looking up in the dictionary. This word is an adverb. 4. The first men were vegetarians.
5. Serfdom was abolished in Russia in the 19th century. 6. Columbus, who discovered America, was a native of Genoa. 7. Rome is an ancient town. 8. Ireland, Scotland and Wales are parts of the United Kingdom. 9. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia? — The Pacific. 10. Last summer I visited Switzerland and Germany. 11. Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands.
Once there lived a king. His name was Midas. He had a little daughter. They lived in a beautiful palace with a wonderful garden around it. Now the king was very fond of gold. He loved gold more than anything else in the world. One day, when the king was looking at his gold, a young man appeared before him. "You are a very rich man, Midas," said the young man. "Yes," said the king, "but I would like to be richer. I would like to have a golden touch. I want everything that I touch to turn into gold." The young man was a magician, and he gave the king the golden touch which he wanted to have. The king was very happy. He touched a table, and the table became gold. He went into the garden. There were beautiful roses in the garden. He touched the roses, and they also became gold. The king's daughter, who loved the roses very much, saw it and began to cry. "Don't cry, dear daughter", said the king and touched his daughter's head. The next moment the girl turned into a beautiful gold statue.
A group of farmers were sitting in a village house, and among other things they began talking about echoes. One of the farmers said that there was a wonderful echo in the field near his farm where there was a large group of trees. All the other farmers said that they would like to hear the echo, and the farmer invited them to come the next afternoon. But the fact was that the farmer did not really have the
echo he had told the other farmers about. So when he came home, he sent for the son of the cook and told him to go to the field, hide himself among the trees and imitate everything that was said. The next day the other farmers came, and the farmer took them to the field to listen to the wonderful echo. When they were in the field, he shouted at the top of his voice: "Are you there?" The answer came back: "Yes, I've been here for two hours!"
It was a nice summer day. The weather was fine, the sun was shining in the blue sky, the air was fragrant with the smell of grass and flowers. A dog which was running about the streets of a little town saw a butcher's stall with a lot of meat. The dog cautiously approached the stall and, when the butcher turned away to talk to a woman, quickly seized a big piece of meat and ran away with it. On the way home the dog had to cross a stream by a narrow bridge. As he was crossing, he looked down into the stream and saw his reflection in the water. He thought it was another dog with another piece of meat. He snapped at the reflection and dropped his own piece of meat. That's how the dog was punished for greediness.
On Sunday our family went to the country. We got up at sunrise and quickly had breakfast. After breakfast we left home. There is a little village not far from St. Petersburg where we have friends. We went there by train. We had a very good time in the country. The weather was fine, the sky was blue and the sun was shining. We stayed out of doors all day long. We played volleyball and tennis. We returned to town late in the evening. When we came home, we had supper and went to bed at once.
1. Look at the sky. It is covered with dark clouds. Let's hurry home. 2. It was very pleasant to live in the country in summer. The weather was fine and it seldom rained. Summer is a fine season. 3. How lovely the night is! There are no clouds in the sky and the air is so fresh. 4. When spring comes, the sun shines brighter, the snow melts, the days become longer. 5. Winter is a good time for sports. 6. On Sunday my friend and I usually go to the country. We ski, skate, play snowballs and have a very good time. 7. The fog is so dense that it is difficult to walk. 8. My friend is a very good chess player. 9. In summer we lived in the country and went up to town by train. 10. Tomorrow is Sunday. If it is too hot in town, we shall go to the country. And on Monday we shall come back.
Last Tuesday evening, when the whole family was at home, a burglar came into the house and stole $ 500! When we discovered the theft, we called the police. Because his shoes were wet and dirty, the de¬tective could follow his footprints. Here is what the burglar did. He came in the front door. It was locked, so he broke the lock. Dad was reading a newspaper in the study near the front door. He was facing the big window, so he didn't see the man, and because he was also listening to loud music, he didn't hear him. It was raining and there was thunder, so there was a lot of noise outside, too. The burglar crossed the hall to the kitchen. Mum was making a pot of tea, so he didn't go into the kitchen. The man went back across the hall and looked into the dining room. No one was in there. He looked through all the drawers and found $ 300. But this wasn't enough. He came out of the dining room and went upstairs. Tom was doing his homework in his bedroom and listening to his Walkman. The burglar went past Tom's room. Sally was taking a shower and singing at the top of her lungs. He went into the TV room. He opened everything but found nothing. Then he left the TV room, went back down the stairs and into the kitchen. Mum was sitting in the living room with Dad. The burglar was very quiet! He found $200 in an old teapot on the top shelf of the left kitchen cupboard. Then the man went out through the French window in the dining room. It wasn't locked, so it was easy to get out. The police couldn't believe it! We never heard the burglar!
1. My brother read to me an extract from the book which he had brought the day before. The main character of the book is a young doctor who went to a distant village in Siberia. 2. The weather was very bad in October. 3. When he came into the room, he saw a man sitting on the sofa. He at once remembered that it was the man he had seen at the theatre the night before. 4. Yesterday I saw the film you are speaking about. 5. He took a taxi and gave the address to the driver. 6. Tower Bridge is the first bridge over the Thames coming from the sea. Built in 1894 it is a suspension bridge. The central portion of it can be opened to admit ships to the docks in this part of the river. When a ship arrives, the traffic is stopped and the great bridge opens in the centre: its two halves go up into the air and the ship passes through.
Once a Frenchman was travelling in Sweden. He stopped at a hotel in a little Swedish town. It was evening, the man was tired, so he went to bed at once. In the morning he had breakfast in the hotel restaurant. After breakfast he went for a walk. He walked along the streets of the town, visited a museum and some shops. Presently he felt hungry and dropped into a cafe for lunch. He sat down at a table, called a waiter and ordered mushrooms. But the Frenchman did not know Swedish and the waiter did not know French. Nobody in the cafe could speak French. Then the Frenchman took a piece of paper and a pencil and drew the picture of a mushroom. The waiter looked at the picture and left the room at once. Five minutes later he returned with an umbrella.
A guide was once showing a group of rich American tourists the places of interest in a little town in the south of Italy. He took the tourists from place to place, but as the town was small, after a while the guide could not think of anything that might be of interest to the Americans. "Tell us something unusual about the weather or the climate of this place," said an American lady to the guide. "What can I tell her about our climate?" thought the guide. Then he had an idea. "Well," he said, ""there is one unusual thing about our climate. One can easily notice that the wind here always blows from the west." "Really?" said the lady in a surprised tone: "What an interesting thing!" But another tourist said: "You must be wrong. Look! The wind is blowing from the east now." At the first moment the guide did not know what to say. But he was a clever man and soon found a way out. "Oh," he said, "Is that so? Well, then it must be the west wind coming back."
The English king Richard the Lion Heart was a tall, strong man. He was very proud of his strength and liked to show people how strong he was. Once, as he was riding on horseback in the countryside, his horse lost a shoe. Luckily he was not far from a village and soon he found a blacksmith. "Give me a good horseshoe," he said to the man. The blacksmith gave the king a horseshoe. Richard took it in his hand and broke it in two. "This horseshoe is no good," he said, "give me a better one." The blacksmith did not say a word. He gave the king another horseshoe, but Richard broke it, too. The blacksmith gave him a third shoe. This time Richard was satisfied and ordered the blacksmith to shoe his horse. When the work was done, Richard offered the man a coin. The blacksmith took the coin between his fingers and broke it in two. Now it was Richard's turn to be surprised. He took a larger coin out of his pocket and handed it to the blacksmith. The man broke it, too, saying: "This coin is no good, give me a better one". Richard smiled and gave the man a gold coin.
In the fifteenth century people knew only three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. They knew nothing about such a big continent as America, The man who discovered America was born in 1451 in Italy. His name was Christopher Columbus. He became a sailor at an early age. Knowing that the Earth was round, he decided to reach India sailing to the west. He tried to arrange an expedition, but did not have money, and nobody wanted to help him. At last the king of Spain gave him money for the expedition. He set sail in 1492. The voyage was very dangerous and difficult. On the 12th of October his ship reached land. When they landed, they saw strange trees and flowers. Men and women with olive-coloured skins gathered around the sailors and looked at them with great surprise. Columbus was sure that he had discovered a new way to India. Some time later another sailor reached America. The name of the sailor was Amerigo Vespucci. He understood that it was a new continent.