ГДЗ Грамматика. Ключи к упражнениям. Ю. Б. Голицынский 8 класс

Упражнение 61

1. He's looking for a plain shirt, but all the shirts are striped. 2. I'm looking for a pair of black pants. 3. She's looking for a blouse. Polka-dot blouses are very popular this summer. 4. I bought a new hat yesterday. The shop assistant said it was the latest style. 5. I want to ask you to accompany me to the shop. I must buy a dress. 6. Where did you buy this overcoat? — I bought it at a big store in Nevsky Prospect on Tuesday. 7. My sister bought a blue hat on Wednesday. The colour suits her very nicely as she has got blue eyes. 8.1 must buy a pair of new gloves. 9. Where is the shoe department? — It is on the third floor. 10. I think the coat is a little tight. 11. We came to a big store to find out if we could have a suit made to order. 12. I don't like the hat you have chosen. The colour is not becoming to you. 13. Here is the department of ready-made clothes. Let's go in and see if we can buy a nice pair of trousers for you. 14. I am going to give him a tie as a birthday present.

Упражнение 62

Mr. Jones was a teacher of physics at school. He was fond of the experimental method in physics and often told his pupils to use this method. One day Mr. Jones came to school on a new bicycle. The bicycle had a pair of pneumatic tyres, which had just been invented, and none of the pupils had ever seen them. During a lesson the teacher took the pupils into the school yard and showed them the new invention. "Now, children," he said, "who can tell me what is inside this tyre that makes it so hard and yet so elastic?" The boys touched the tyres. "Cotton wool," said one of them. "Steel springs," said another. "Oh no," said the teacher, "you are wrong." Suddenly a little boy, who was standing beside the bicycle, cried out, looking very happy: "I know what it is! There's wind inside." Mr. Jones smiled and said: "You are right: there's air inside. But how did you find it out?" "Well, I used the experimental method," said the boy: "I stuck a nail into the tyre, and some wind came out of it". For the first time in his life Mr. Jones did not like the use of the experimental method.

Упражнение 63

1. Everyone in our country knows Lomonosov, the founder of the first Russian university. 2.Nekrasov, a famous Russian poet, described the life of Russian peasants. 3. I don't want to miss the concert which will take place at the Philharmonic on the 15 th of April. 4. He graduated from the university six years ago. Now he is a scientist. And though he is a young scientist, his name is well known. 5. My aunt is a teacher of physics. 6. Yesterday I read a book by Dickens, a famous English writer. 7. I am sorry, I don't know the way to the nearest cafe: I am a stranger here myself. 8. The town I was born in is on the Volga. 9. Who is the author of this book? 10. A quarter of an hour was left before the beginning of the concert. We entered the hall and saw a group of pupils of our school. We joined them.

Упражнение 64

1. During the vacation I attended some interesting lectures. I remember two of the lectures best of all. They were about Russian music. 2. I am sure he won't stay in town for the vacation. 3. Two weeks are left before the end of the school year. The examinations are coming. On the first of June we shall take an examination in literature. 4, Today is my day off. I am going to spend the day in the country. 5. My brother brought a new book yesterday. When I looked at the title, I was very glad: it was the book which I had wanted to get for a long time. 6. My sister is acquainted with the actor who played the leading part in the play you saw yesterday. 7. "What river is the longest in Europe?" "Why, what a strange question to ask! Any schoolboy can tell you that it is the Volga." 8. I am afraid you will have a lot of trouble with this business. 9. The day was not bright yesterday. The sky was covered with clouds.

Упражнение 65

I knew a man who had travelled very much in his life. He had visited many countries in the east and in the west. He loved children and often told them interesting stories. I remember some of the stories which he told me. One of the stories was about an adventure he had had in London. He was a young man at that time and was interested in the history of architecture. One day he visited one of the towers of the Houses of Parliament. He came out on to the balcony of the tower and began to look at the ornaments on the walls. Then he climbed up on the roof. Suddenly a man came running to him and seized him by the arm. He began shouting something in English, but my friend knew only a few words of English and did not understand him. The Englishman called a policeman. The fact was that he thought that the Russian tourist wanted to kill himself by jumping from the top of the tower. Later, when everything became clear, they laughed a lot over it.

Упражнение 66

One day a father and his rich family took his son on a trip to the country with the firm purpose of showing him how poor people can be. They spent a day and a night at the farm of a very poor family. When they returned from their trip, the father asked his son, "How was the trip?" "Very good, Dad!" "Did you see how poor people can be?" the father asked. "Yeah!" "And what did you learn?" The son replied: "I saw that we have a dog at home, and they have four. We have a pool that reaches to the middle of the garden; they have a river that has no end» We have imported lamps in the garden; they have the stars. Our patio reaches to the front yard; they have a whole horizon." When a little boy finished speaking, his father was speechless. His son added, "Thanks, Dad for showing me how poor we are."

Упражнение 67

The room in which the boys were fed was a large stone hall, with a copper at one end, out of which the cook took gruel which he put into each bowl at mealtimes. Each boy had one portion of gruel and no more, and on Sundays they had two ounces and a quarter of bread besides. The bowls never needed washing — the boys polished them with their spoons till they shone again. At last the boys got so wild with hunger that one boy said he was afraid he would some night eat the boy who slept next to him. The boys believed him. A council was held. Oliver was chosen to go up to the cook that evening after supper and ask for more. The evening arrived, and the boys took their places. The cook stood at the copper. The gruel was served out and disappeared. Then Oliver rose from the table and advancing to the cook, said in a weak voice: "Please, sir, I want some more." The cook was a healthy man, but he turned pale. "What?" said he in a trembling voice. The man could not believe his ears.

Упражнение 68

Many years ago a London theatre performed a play in which there was a great storm on the sea. In those days theatres had no machines. That is why the manager engaged several boys to make the waves of the sea. They jumped up and down under a big piece of sea-green cloth. The boys received a shilling a night for their work. They worked for several weeks. But then the manager decided to pay them less money — only sixpence a night. So the boys decided to go on strike. During a performance, when the storm began, when the wind blew and it was raining, the sea remained calm — there was not a single wave on it. The angry manager lifted once corner of the "sea" and said to the boys: "Make waves, boys, make waves !" "Do you want waves for a shilling or for sixpence?" asked a boy in a loud voice. "Oh, for a shilling," answered the manager. The boys began to jump up and down, and did it so well, that the storm looked quite real.

Упражнение 69
In the old days it was necessary for all the parts of a city to be close together, in order that a defensive wall might surround it, and the streets, therefore, were made as narrow as possible. Many European cities began with walls round them. But in America there was little need for defensive walls, and that's why many American cities have been built on a regular plan, modified a little according to natural surroundings. The streets in American cities, instead of having names, are numbered, and so when one has once understood the plan of an American city, it is very easy to find one's way from one part of it to another. The old part of New York lies in the southern half of Manhattan Island, and there the streets are narrow and twisted, as in the towns of the old world. But the rest of the streets, with but few exceptions, all run in straight lines. There is one street in the city, however, that does not follow a straight line. And that is Broadway, New York's most famous street. It starts within sight of the dancing waters of the harbour and runs between tall skyscrapers in the northwestern direction. This great street is the longest in the world.

Упражнение 70

Africa is a very large continent lying to the south of Europe and to the southwest of Asia to which it is joined by the Isthmus of Suez. Less than one hundred years ago men knew almost nothing of the middle of the continent. Travellers from Europe made long journeys into the centre but they met with terrible difficulties, for the continent is covered with forests full of fearful wild animals. Some travellers died of hunger or thirst or strange illnesses, others were killed by lions, still others by natives; but nevertheless bold men were found ready to go along rivers into the heart of Africa. The merchants who came from European countries had much to sell, and here were millions of people ready to buy; here was a country, the richness of which was unimaginable.

Упражнение 71

Robert Burns, the son of a small farmer in Ayrshire, was born on the 25th of January, 1759. His parents were poor, so that Burns could not get a good education. He worked hard as a ploughboy. He was fond of reading and always had a ballad book before him at dinner. After the death of his father Robert and his brother and sisters took over the farm together. Working in the fields Burns wrote many wonderful songs. However, things became so bad on the farm, that the poet decided to go to Jamaica hoping to get a job on a plantation there. Luckily some friends helped Burns to publish a book of poems. The book was noticed and praised highly. In 1786 Burns went to Edinburgh, and his book of poems unlocked the doors of rich Edinburgh houses to a peasant with such a wonderful talent. In 1788 he married Jean Armour and spent a peaceful and happy year. The rest of his life story is a tale of the poet's hardships. The hard life ruined the poet's health, and on the 21st of July, 1796, he died at the age of thirty-seven.

Упражнение 72

"Is there a post office near the house you live in?" "Yes, there is. Go to the corner of the street along which trams run. Then turn to the left and walk a short distance down the street. Do not cross the street, of course. You will see a sign over a door which says "Post and Telegraph Office". "Thank you very much. I am sure I shall find it without difficulty. I must buy some stamps, send a telegram and ask whether they receive parcels there. I want to send a parcel to an old friend. It will be her birthday in a week. Perhaps you can tell me where I can find a shop that sells nice things that one can give as presents?" "Yes, certainly, There's a very good shop not far from here. You can easily walk there in a few minutes. Go straight down the street that you will see directly in front of you when you come out of the post office till you come to a wide street along which buses and trolleybuses run. Then turn to the left again and almost immediately you will come to a beautiful shop with big windows full of all sorts of things. I am sure you will find nice presents there".

Упражнение 73
Until near the end of the 19th century it was the law in England that if a man was unable to pay a debt, even a small one, he could be imprisoned. This imprisonment might very well be for life, as it was impossible for the people in prison to work at their ordinary occupations and so make money to repay the sum they had borrowed. If they had friends who could bring them materials to work with, they might work with their hands, sewing or making boots, for instance. The great English novelist Charles Dickens knew a great deal about the debtors' prisons from personal experience, for when he was about ten, his father was imprisoned for debt, and the whole family had to go and live with him in the prison because they had nowhere else to live. The mother and the children, however, could leave the place when they wished; but at ten o'clock every evening the great gates were shut for the night, and no one could leave or enter until morning. Dickens described the life in the debtors' prisons in some of his novels. It was largely because of Dickens' sharp criticism that the English Government was finally forced to do away with debtors' prisons.

Упражнение 74

At the beginning of the 19th century a little boy was born in the family of John Dickens, a clerk at an office in Portsmouth, and was named Charles. He had a sister who was older than himself, and there were several other children in the family. When Charles was seven, he was sent to school. He was not a strong child. He did not like to play cricket or football and spent all his free time reading. In 1821 the family went to London, and little Charles left behind him the happiest years of his childhood. His father was in money difficulties, and the family became poorer and poorer. The boy had to give up his studies. Mr. Dickens was put into a debtors' prison. Little Charles learned to know all the horrors and cruelty of a large capitalist city. He had to go to work at a blacking factory. He worked there from morning till night. When his father came out of prison, Charles was sent to school for some time. Soon he got work as a clerk. Then he learned stenography and became a reporter in Parliament. In 1836 at the age of 24 Charles Dickens published his first book. It was a collection of stories. The title of the book was "Sketches by Boz." These were followed by "Pickwick Papers" and "Oliver Twist" and many other famous novels. Charles Dickers is one of the greatest writers of the 19th century. His novels are now translated into most languages of the world.

Упражнение 75

During the American war of Independence, the commander of a small unit of soldiers was giving orders to his men about a heavy cannon that they were trying to lift to its place at the top of some fortifications. It was almost beyond their power to lift the weight, and the commander kept shouting encouraging words. An officer, not in uniform, was passing by, and he asked the commander why he did not help the soldiers. Greatly surprised, the man turned round and said proudly: "Sir, I am a corporal!" "Oh, you are, are you?" replied the officer: "I did not know that. I beg your pardon, Mr. Corporal." Then he got off the horse he was riding and, taking hold of the rope that the men were pulling at, he pulled with all his strength. And when the cannon was in its place, he turned to the little great man and said: "Mr. Corporal, when you have another job like this and have not enough men, send for your commander in chief, and I shall gladly come and help you." The corporal was struck with astonishment. The man who had helped his soldiers was George Washington.

Упражнение 76

William Shakespeare, the greatest English playwright, was born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon in England. Stratford is a small country town in a farming district near the centre of England, The Avon, which is a pretty river with grass and trees all along its banks, runs through Stratford. Not much is known of Shakespeare's father. He was a farmer who, at different times of his life, sold meat and bought and sold wool. He was poor and was often in money difficul-ties. Very little is known about the life of his only son William also. The little house in which the great writ-er was born still stands. It is
now a museum. William went to school in Stratford. In 1586 he went to London. Probably the first work he did there was at one of the two theatres that there were in London at that time. Then he became an actor and soon began to write plays for the company of actors to which he belonged. Shakespeare bought the largest house in his home town in 1597, but he did not spend much time there till 1610. He spent the last years of his life mostly in Stratford, but he often visited London. He died in 1616.

Упражнение 77

Last July, my 65-year-old father was on his dayly run. It was an unusually hot day, and he felt a little sick, so he stopped to rest in the shade. A passerby asked if he needed help, but my father said, "No," figuring he'd be able to get home. Minutes later, another person stopped. The man realized something was seriously wrong and called 911. That stranger saved my father's life. Dad suffered a heart attack and was hospitalized for five days. I cannot thank that passerby enough for getting in-volved and helping when it would have been easier to walk away. Now, my father has many years left to enjoy his grandchildren. Let everybody be Good Samaritans when they see the need. A life could depend on it.

Упражнение 78

A young man attempted to rob a store near my office. He bought a bag of potato chips, and while the clerk was making change, he attempted to grab the money from the cash register. When the clerk quickly closed the drawer, the man tried to take the cash register but it was so heavy, he couldn't lift it. He got angry. There was a rack full of cigarettes in the corner of the store. He decided to grab the cigarettes but the clerk stopped him. The man drove away empty-handed, but was spotted by the police for driving a stolen car. The police pursued him with lights flashing and sirens blaring. He was soon arrested and charged with possession of a stolen vehicle, careless and reckless driving and speeding. His fine was set at $2,000. While being escorted, the man asked if he could stop near the store and get his potato chips, since he had paid for them. The clerk at the store identified him as the man who tried to steal the cash register, and he was charged with attempted robbery. His fine was increased to $15,000; he sits in jail awaiting trial.

Упражнение 79

1. George Bernard Shaw, a well-known English playwright, was born in Ireland in 1856. He was the son of a clerk and had to begin working at an early age. At the age of twenty he moved to London where he became a journalist. 2. The play «Widowers' Houses» shows the egoism and hypocricy of some businessmen who got their profits from the London slums where the poorest people lived. 3. While travelling in Germany Harry Trench, a young English doctor, got acquainted with Mr. Sartorius, a respectable looking gentleman, and his daughter Blanche. The young people fell in love with each other and were going to get married. Trench knew that Sartorius was rich, but he did not know what kind of property he had. He learned about it from a conversation with Lickcheese, Sartorius' rent collector. It turned out that Sartorius was the owner of some tenements in the London slums, and that all the property he had was built by getting money out of the poor people who lived there. Trench was greatly shocked. He did not want to take money from Blanche's father. But Blanche said she could not live on the small income Trench had. They had a quarrel, and Trench left the house. After some time Trench learned that the land on which Sartorius' houses were built belonged to Trench's aunt and that he himself was living on the money got in the same way. Everything comes out "all right" in the end: Trench marries Blanche and becomes a partner in Sartorius' business/The author shows that in fact Trench is no better than Sartorius, Lickcheese and the like.

Упражнение 80

My husband picks up the local newspaper every morning from a vending machine on our way to work. The other morning, a girl who appeared to be about 6 was in front of him in line, buying the paper for her mother, who was sitting in the car. The child put the money for one paper in the slot and took two  newspapers! My husband said to her, "Oh, is this two-for-one day?" The child did not reply. She just took the two newspapers to her mother. This is stealing, pure and simple. I wonder what this mother is going to think when her daughter becomes a teen and gets arrested for shoplifting at the mall? I suppose she'll wonder where her daugter got the idea that it is OK to take something without paying for it. The mother missed an opportunity to teach her child right from wrong. If the child took the extra newspaper in error, the mother should have instructed her to put it back. However, if she put the child up to it — shame on her.

Упражнение 81

Three ink robbers got a surprise last night. This is what happened. The three robbers, who all work as cleaners at a hospital, drove up to the bank on Main Street. The three men, wearing masks over their faces, got out of the car and ran into the bank. Inside the bank, they pointed guns at the customers and bank tellers. One of the men told all the customers to lie down on the floor. And then one of the other men said something like, "Quick the money! Give me money!" So one of the tellers handed them some bags. After leaving the bank, the three men jumped into their van and drove off. One mile down the road, the robbers parked their van next to an ambulance they had parked before the robbery. They got into the ambulance and drove off. They went straight to their hospital. After leaving the ambulance in the hospital parking lot, the three men went together into a small room. There, they opened the bags of money they had been given — and got a very unpleasant surprise! The bank teller had given the robbers special bags containing bright red ink! The red ink is released when the bag is opened, and it can't be washed off. So suddenly, the men found themselves covered in red ink! As the men left the room and tried to leave the hospital, an emergency room doctor saw them and she thought, "Oh God, they're all covered in blood." So she tried to help them but they refused her help and ran off. The doctor realized something funny was going on and she called the police. The police caught the robbers
— guess where? Outside the bank on Main Street.

Упражнение 82

A lioness, a tigress, an actress, a poetess, a woman, an aunt, a wife, a sister, a grandmother, a daughter, a mistress, a baroness, a countess, a shepherdess, a hostess.

Упражнение 83

A lord, a boy, a nephew, Mr. Smith, a widower, a steward, a Frenchman, an ox, a king, a prince, a duke, a cock, a father.

Упражнение 84

Pens, classes, stories, roads, days, cats, bushes, desks, tables, plates, foxes, rooms, ladies, knives, chairs, buses, Negroes, matches, ways, houses, families, flags, towns, wolves, countries, lions, parks, plays.

Упражнение 85

Babies, plants, lemons, peaches, bananas, brushes, stars, mountains, trees, shillings, kings, the waiters, the queens, men, the men, women, the women, eyes, shelves, boxes, the cities, boys, geese, the watches, mice, dresses, toys, the sheep, teeth, children, the oxen, deer, the lives, tomatoes.

Упражнение 86

These magazines, those stickers, these stamps, those sandwiches, these posters, these teacups, these eggs, those walls, those pictures, these feet, those mountains, these ladies, those windows, these men, those matches, these knives.

Упражнение 87
1. These are spiders. 2. Those are snails. 3. These are space films. 4. Those are cartoons. 5. These are stars. 6. These are boys. 7. These are babies. 8. Those are plates. 9. Those are flowers. 10. Those are bookshelves. 11. Are these sofas? 12. Are these bookcases? 13. Are these men? 14. Are those balls?
15. Are those trains? 16. Are those planes? 17. Are the windows open? 18. Are the doors closed? 19. Are the boys near the window? 20. Those are not kings. 21. Those are not queens. 22. Those are not buses. 23. These aren't mountains. 24. Those aren't geese. 25. These aren't mice. 26. They are sheep. 27. They are cigarettes. 28. They are cats. 29. They are not girls. 30. They aren't bags. 31. They aren't trees. 32. They are not bad eggs. 33. They are good eggs. 34. Are those flowers?

Упражнение 88

1. These cups are dirty. 2. Those biscuits were tasty. 3. These hotels are very expensive but they are very nice. 4. There are children's playgrounds in the park. 5. Those are new supermarkets in our town. 6. They are delicious lemon pies for dessert. 7. They are nice cotton dresses for my nieces. 8. These men are engineers. 9. Those women are my sisters. 10. These children are my sons. 11. Those geese are big. 12. These mice are white. 13. These men are doctors. 14. Those women are my cousins. They are teachers. 15. Thosegirls are my nieces. They are pupils. 16. These girls have blue sweaters. 17. These boys have good coats. 18. My uncles have large flats. 19. There are some tables in the room. 20. We have good pens. Our pens are in our pockets. 21. There are some flowers in the vase. 22. These children's feet are sore.

Упражнение 89

1. Those phones in the office are out of order. 2. Those blouses are made of silk. 3. These are excellent paintings. 4. His books are very popular and they really interest me. 5. They are difficult words to write. 6. My sons are journalists and they have been very successful. 7. These purses aren't made of leather. 8. Those are my neighbours' cars. 9. Have they got cameras? 10. They are new cassette recorders. 11. These rooms are very large. 12. There are some matches in the box. 13. Have these ladies knives?14. There are some men and women in the street.15. These ladies are those gentlemen's wives. 16. These shoes are too large for my feet. 17. The children are sitting on a bench. 18. My teeth are white. 19. These keys are made of steel. 20. Potatoes are vegetables and cherries are fruit. 21.These are my friends' studies.

Упражнение 90

1. These are my stockings. 2. They have new suits. 3. These metals are very hard. 4. Those ships are Russian ones. 5. We heard their voices. 6. Their dogs do not like bread. 7. The plates were on the table. 8. These towns are very large. 9. We were talking to them at the tram stop yesterday. 10. Are those girls your sisters? 11. We shall give you our books. 12. These stories will be good ones. 13. Are these good matches? 14. The boys put their books on the desks. 15. They took off their hats. 16. Those houses are new. 17. The young men put their hands in their pockets. 18. Are these students coming with us, too? 19. The women didn't say anything. 20. Do they speak English?